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What's the difference between a Roller Mill and a Hammer Mill?

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Hammer Mill

A finer particle size can be achieved in comparison to a roller mill. With proper filtration, the hammer mill allows for more efficient use of malt grains by increasing surface area. It requires less grain to make the same amount of beer when using a hammer mill.
Modern method, reduces particles using impact force.
Power consumption per pound generally higher than roller mill, but highly efficient on Circ-U-Flow model hammer mill due to 300 degree screen and large rotor diameter resulting in high tip speed.
Perforated screens or grates are used to regulate particle size
Post grinding, i.e. positioning of the mill after the grain blending process, is possible. This allows for simplified building layouts, reduced bulk ingredient storage space, and reduced capital costs.
One small 5 HP Circ-U-Flow hammermill can mill over 1 TPH of grain. Larger models can achieve 30-40 TPH. 
Pneumatics can dramatically increase machine throughput, but are not required for milling grain.	
When hammers and screens become worn, they are simple and relatively inexpensive to replace. Schutte Buffalo offers direct phone and online parts service.

Roller Mill

Traditional method, dates back to wind and water power, reduces particles using compression force. 
Power consumption per pound generally lower, but throughput per hour also lower.
There are no screens or grates used to regulate particle size. Instead, particle size and consistency is purely based on the miller's skill in setting the roller mill effectively. 
Post grinding is impractical due to the fact that ultimate particle sizes are larger and more irregular, requiring more care and attention to achieve consistent and accurate grind.
Available capacity of grain is a major consideration  because it can take larger or multiple roller mills to achieve the same capacity of a hammer mill.
Pneumatic systems are not easily integrated for use with a roller mill.
When roll chills become worn, replacing or recorrugating the old chills is more expensive and time consuming.

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The difference between a roller mill and a hammer mill is:
A hammer mill uses rotating hammers to pound grain through a screen and it requires a lot of horsepower. You get a lot of powder with larger deviation from the hammering.
A roller mill uses cylindrical rollers that grind the grain when it goes through them, which requires less horsepower then a similar capacity hammer mill. A roller mill gets a more consistent grind and smaller deviation then a hammer mill by rolling the grain instead of hammering it.  
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